Showing posts with label filing. Show all posts
Showing posts with label filing. Show all posts

Wednesday, 15 March 2017

How to Apply for an International Patent

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How to Apply for an International Patent


Determining the Patentability of your InventionImage titled Apply for an International Patent Step 1

  1. 1Determine if you have a patentable invention. U.S. law sets forth the following requirements for something that can be patented:
    • It must be invented or discovered by a person;
    • It must be a new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter; or
    • If not new, it must be an improvement on a useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter.[1]
     Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 2
    2Verify your invention is not already patented. If your invention meets the requirements for a patentable invention, you must conduct a search to determine whether your idea has already been patented. The US Patent and Trademark Office recommends you follow the following seven steps to search for a patent:
    • Brainstorm terms that are related to your invention. When coming up with terms, think about words relevant to your inventions purpose, make-up, and use.
    • Search for your terms on the USPTO website at: You should conduct your search in the following format "CPC Scheme [plus keywords(s) describing invention]." This search should help you locate the invention’s Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).
    • Once you have located the CPC, review the linked definition to make sure that the definition fits your invention.
    • Search the USPTO patent database,, for all patents matching your CPC. After identifying the patents, quickly skim the first page of each patent to determine whether it matches your own invention. If there is a similarity, read the documents more closely including descriptions of the intended use of the invention and any drawings of the invention.
    • If your initial search does not turn up any similar patents, expand your search by performing a key word search on the website. You can also search additional databases at and[2]
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 3
    3Hire a patent lawyer. Once you have conducted your initial search and found no matching patents, you should hire a patent lawyer. The filing of domestic and international patents requires significant paperwork, legal knowledge of patent law, and experience. While you can attempt to complete the filings yourself, it is strongly advised that you hire someone who has previously applied for patents. This attorney should be able to streamline the process, ensure that you don’t miss any deadlines, and prepare your paperwork so that it meets the requirements.
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Applying for a Patent in Your RegionImage titled Apply for an International Patent Step 4

  1. Determine if you are applying for a provisional or non-provisional patent. A provisional application is essentially a placeholder where you begin to protect your invention before it is a fully formed or completed idea. If you file a provisional application, you will eventually need to file a non-provisional application within one-year of filing the provisional application.
    • A provisional application may be right for you if you are unsure of the commercial value of your invention but you want to protect your invention. It is less expensive to file a a provisional application and you have 12 months to determine if you want to move forward with the cost and time of filing a non-provisional application.
    • If you have already determined the commercial value of your invention and intend to move forward with the production of the product, you should apply for a non-provisional patent and save yourself the time of completing two applications.[3]
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 5
    2Draft a provisional patent application. The provisional patent application provides a less expensive means for applicants filing for U.S. patents. A provisional patent means that the patent is pending. You can file a provisional application without a formal patent claim, oath, declaration, or an information disclosure statement.[4] A provisional patent application must include:
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 6
    3Draft a non-provisional patent application. Unlike the provisional patent application, a patent officer examines a non-provisional patent application and if it meets all of the requirements, a patent will be issued. In order to submit a complete non-provisional patent application, your application must include:
    • A Utility Patent Application Transmittal Form, which lists the required documents for the application and contains the inventor(s) signature or the signature of the inventor’s attorney.
    • A Fee Transmittal Form that specifies the fees that are being submitted with the application.
    • A signed Application Data Sheet that lists inventor and/or applicant information, an address for correspondence, a description of the domestic benefit, and any foreign priority or assignee information.
    • A certification of small and micro entity status, if applicable. If you qualified as a small and micro entity, you must submit one of the following forms: Certification based on gross income or Certification based on institution of higher learning.
    • Any specification documents, which are documents that describe the invention and how it is used. For a full list of specification requirements visit:
    • All drawings that are necessary to understand the invention.[7]
    • The inventor’s oath or declaration that states the application was made by or on behalf of the inventor, that the invention is believed to be an original invention, and an acknowledgement that any false statement is punishable under the law and by imprisonment. The inventor must sign the document.[8]
    • You can find a link to patent forms at:
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 7
    4File your patent with the USPTO. Both provisional and non-provisional applications for patents can be filed in the following ways:

Applying for an International PCT Patent

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Overview of the PCT System
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Comparison of Paris and PCT Route
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Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) filing flowchart
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  1. Be mindful of the 12-month deadline for filing an international patent under the Patent Cooperation Treaty. The PCT is an international treaty that allows member countries to file a single international patent application that would be recognized by the other 148 member countries. This patent application must be filed within twelve months of the date that you filed your provisional or non-provisional application with the USTPO.
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 9
    Check foreign country deadlines. Typically, once you submit your PCT patent application you will have between 18 and 30 months to then file your patent in individual countries. This is called “nationalizing” your patent and is discussed below. Before you file your PCT patent, you should be aware of the deadlines so that you can plan your patent application timeline accordingly.[10]
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 10
    Draft a PCT patent application. The PCT patent application requires a number of documents and information for it to be deemed complete. You should consider hiring an attorney that specializes in patent law and is experienced in PCT patents to assist you in drafting your application. Your PCT application must include the following:
    • A PCT Request form that sets forth many of the requirements of the PCT application. The request contains: a petition that the application be processed; the title of the invention; the name of the inventor and/or agent; the inventor’s residence and address; and the inventor’s choice of which international searching agencies he or she wants to conduct the international patent search. The form is located at:
    • The Description must explain the invention in a clear and complete manner. The description should include the following parts: “Technical Field,” “Background Art,” “Disclosure of Invention,” “Brief Description of Drawings,” “Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention” or, where appropriate “Mode(s) for Carrying Out the Invention,” “Industrial Applicability,” and, if applicable, “Sequence Listing” and “Sequence Listing Free Text.”
    • The Claims section must define the protection that is being sought for the invention.
    • The Drawings section include any technical drawings, perspectives, sections, cross-sections, or other diagrams that are necessary for a reviewer to understand the invention. [11]
    • For applications filed via EFS-Web the application must be in PDF format and on paper size A4.
    • All documents must have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.[12]
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 11
    File PCT patent application. A PCT patent application can be filed with the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in the following ways:
    • Electronically via the ePCT system located at; or on the PCT-SAFE system located at
    • By fax to (41-22) 910 06 10 (or (41-22) 338 70 60 in case of transmission difficulties). You must forward the original document within 14 days to the address listed below.
    • By mail or hand delivery to: International Bureau of WIPO, PCT Receiving Office Section, 34, chemin des Colombettes, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 12
    Pay required fees. In order got your patent application to be reviewed, you must pay the required fees.
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 13
    Wait for international patent search to be conducted. Once you have submitted your PCT application, one of the international patent search companies will perform a patent search and write a report as to the patentability of your invention. If your patent is accepted, your application will be published along with the patentability opinion. You also have the option to withdraw your application.[14]
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 14
    Nationalize your foreign patent. Once you have submitted your application and received a favorable opinion on patentability, you must “nationalize” your PCT application in any country that you want to grant you a patent. For example, if you want France and China to grant you a patent, you must submit your PCT application to each of those countries.
    • As discussed above, each jurisdiction has specific deadlines for when you must nationalize your application. You must file your application before the deadline passes.
    • Typically for nationalization you will have to pay a fee, submit some documentation and potentially translate your application. Since each country has different rules, it is wise to hire a local attorney in the country that you are seeking patent protection. Your U.S. attorney should be able to set up this arrangement and work with local lawyers to ensure the application is filed correctly.
    • You want to nationalize your application where you have expected or actual sales of your invention. The cost for nationalization can run between $4000 and $7000 per country.[15]
    Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 15
    8  Enforce your patent. If someone uses your patented invention without permission. This is called patent infringement. In order to secure the right to sue for patent infringement, you must have nationalized your patent in the foreign jurisdiction where your patent was used unlawfully.
    • Even though countries may allow a lawsuit for patent infringement, not all countries have the legal mechanisms in place to actually enforce the decision.
    • Certain international treaties, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or the International treaties such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), have provisions to enforce patents and provide remedies for patent infringement. However, these treaties are only relevant if the country where the infringement occurred is a party to the treaty.[16]
    • If you believe that your patent was infringed, ask your domestic attorney speak with the local attorney who you used for the nationalization process. They should be able to help you bring a patent enforcement case.

Sources and Citations

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Tuesday, 14 March 2017

How do I get a patent in India ?


How much does getting a patent in India costs? There is no precise and accurate answer to this question as cost for a obtaining patent is dependent on mutiple factors... What best we can have is range for costs involved in...
There are two elements for cost of getting patent / filing patent in India:
  • The Government fees for Forms, requests and renewals.
  • Professional Charges for patent professional, patent agent / attorney
Government fees too, are different for an individual inventor and a company. and fees for patent application also defers based on number of claims and pages in the specification. So, a lot of factors need to be considered when talking about costs involved in getting patent.
Yet to give you an idea,the cost to file a patent is approximately Rs. 45,000 to 65,000. This is assuming that you have hired a patent (agent) professionals for patent research, writing and filing patent application for your  invention.
This cost requires in stages as your invention proceeds from Novelty Search (about Rs. 15000)Patent drafting and filing in India (about Rs. 30,000) and after 1 to 2 years for responding to office actions if any objections are taken by controller in examination report on application about your invention, such response to office actions typically requires (about Rs. 15000).
Note: these costs are mentioned are exemplary and may vary with respect to patent professionals and companies.
The link below is the fees structure mentioned at the patent office website in India.
If you are filing patent on your own, without help from patent agent, then it can cost much lesser as only fees you are paying is government fees for patent filing and prosecution.
Here is how you will need charges as per stages in patent filing. We are assuming you have hired a patent professional in helping you with patent filing, which is recommended and makes this all patenting efforts worthwhile with his experience and expertise in techno-legal writing.
Image titled Apply for an International Patent Step 3
patent in india platform office

Stage 1: invention disclosure

This is initial phase when you disclose your invention to the patent professional (patent agent) by signing a Non disclosure agreement. Here you should submit each know fact about your invention, description diagrams and experimental results (if any). Hold nothing back.
Image titled Patent Software Step 1

Stage 2: Novelty search (patentability search)  

The professional charges at this phase range from (Rs 10,000 to Rs.20,000 )
In this phase, patent professional performed an extensive search for prior art in all possible databases for patent, articles, thesis etc... And builds a patentability search report based on closest prior art found for your invention.
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Stage 3: Decide to file patent application

On reviewing the patentability search report and discovered closest prior arts for your invention you can take a decision whether to go ahead with patent application filing.
Your invention needs to have “inventive step” as compared with existing prior art to be able to qualify for a patent. The inventive step is achieved when your invention has either ‘technical advance’ or ‘economic significance’ or both over existing prior arts.
When you decide to go ahead with patent filing next step is writing patent application also called as patent drafting.
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Stage 4: Patent drafting (patent writing)

Patent drafting charges range from Rs. 20,000 to 30,000 (professional fees)
Drafting a patent application is a specialized job and requires both technical (field of invention) and legal (Indian patent act) understanding.
As you may have heard, patent is a techno-legal document. Many inventors trying to write patent application on their own writes it from completely technical perspective. Writing patent application as a technical document without considering legal aspect may be a mistake which can make your application not worth a lot. And all the efforts you took for research and development can go waste.
Hence, right patent professional (patent agent) with appropriate experience can remarkably add value to patent application.
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Stage 5:  Filing Patent application

Patent filing involves patent office fees as explained in table below
When you done with the review of patent drafted and satisfied with the scope and technical details in the patent application, you can file the patent application is prescribed manner. That is with appropriate forms with appropriate fees. You need to pay fees of Rs. 1600 or 4000 0r 8000 (based on type of applicant) while submitting the patent application in patent office.
If you do not file request for early publication (fees mentioned in table below) the patent application will be published on expiry of 18 months.
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Stage 6: Request for Examination  

Request for examination fees is Rs. 4000 or 10000 or 20000 (based on type of applicant)
The request for examination is to be made within 48 months from the date of filing the patent application, along with prescribed form and fees. This is the request made to Indian patent office to examine you patent application.
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Stage 7: Responding to objections in examination report

The first examination report submitted to controller by examiner generally contains prior arts (existing documents before the date of filing) which are similar to the claimed invention, and same is reported to patent applicant.
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Step 8: respond to objections

Majority of patent applicants will receive some type of objections based on examination report. The best thing to do it analyze the examination report along with patent professional (patent agent) and creating a response to the objections raised in the examination report.
This is a chance for an inventor to communicate his novelty or inventive step over prior arts found in the examination report. The inventor and patent agent create and send a response to the examination that tries to prove to controller that his invention is indeed patentable and satisfies all patentability criteria’s.
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Step 9: Grant of patent

The application would be placed in order for grant once it is found to be meeting all patentability requirements. The grant of patent is notified in the patent journal which is published time to time.
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Stage 10: Renewal of Patent fees    

Maintaining patent for its entire life time that is 20 years from filing date requires renewal fees to be paid to patent office as mentioned in link hereImage titled Patent Software Step 14
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Natural Person
(Individual inventors)
Other than Natural person (companies)Comment
Small EntityOther than small entity
1Application for grant of patent160040008000Mandatory
2Early publication fee2500625012500Optional
3Request for examination of patent application40001000020000Mandatory
4For every Extra sheet over 30 sheets160/sheet400/sheet800/sheetMandatory
5For every Extra claim over 10 claims320/claim800/claim1600/claimMandatory