EP 527801 claims Brinzolamide and describes a process to prepare it in 14 steps starting from 3-acetylthiophene (scheme 1). It is a synthesis typical of medicinal chemistry not applicable at industrial level, for which no specific preparations are described, because Brinzolamide is not among the preferred compounds of the invention.
It can be inferred from the patent that there is the possibility to fix the stereogenic centre through selective crystallization of the salt of a chiral acid as di-p-toluoyl-D-tartaric acid, expensive resolution agent, with consequent loss of at least half of the substrate.
EP 617038 describes a process for the preparation of Brinzolamide and its analogues starting from 3-acetyl-2,5-dichlorothiophene (scheme 2).
The sulfonamide is introduced in position 6 through metallation with n-butyl lithium, an expensive raw material, and then with a reaction with sulphurous anhydride and hydroxylamino-O-sulphonic acid. The base should be used in substantial excess (2,3 eq.), because the oxydrilic group reacts with the first equivalent. In this case the protection of the oxydrilic group as described in Scheme 1 is not possible without running the risk of racemization of the substrate.
Lastly, the conversion of the secondary alcohol to the amine is difficult and requires the protection (10) of the primary sulfonamide with trimethyl orthoacetate, the activation (11) of the oxydrilic group with tosyl chloride and finally the substitution (12) of the tosyl group with ethylamine and at the same time the aminolysis of the protection of sulfonamide with the excess of ethylamine.
This synthesis is described in Org. Process Res. Dev. 3, 1999, 114, written by the R&D laboratories of Alcon. So it is reasonable to believe that this synthesis is used by Alcon at industrial level. Anyway, due to the low purity of the product obtained (97%), several crystallizations are needed to have a product of acceptable pharmaceutical grade.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,470,973 describes a variant of the synthesis in scheme 1, which involves an alternative preparation of the syntone 2H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2-thiazin-4-ol, 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2-(3-methoxypropyl)-, 1,1-dioxide, (4S)- and the other analogues lacking chlorine in position 6 or the 3-methoxypropylic chain (scheme 3).
So it is evident the need of an alternative process for the preparation of Brinzolamide which can resolve the above mentioned technical problems.
1H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): 8.05 (s, 2H), 7.59 (s, 1H), 4.16 (m, 2H), 4.07 (m, 2H), 3.87 (s, 2H), 3.4-3.3 (m, 4H), 3.21 (s, 3H), 1.81 (m, 2H).
Example 8 2′-(3-methoxypropyl)-2′,3′-dihydrospiro[1,3-dioxolan-2,4′-thieno[3,2-e][1,2]thiazin]-6′-sulphonamide, 1′,1′-dioxide 9 (X=sulphonamide)
General Procedure 5 Hydrolisis of the Protective GroupThe compound of formula 5 is dissolved in toluene (10-20 volumes) and an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 2-12 N is added. The mixture is stirred at a temperature which can vary between 20° C. and 80° C. for a time between 2 and 16 ore, until complete hydrolysis. The phases are separated and the product 1 is isolated through distillation of the organic solvent under vacuum, obtaining a solid with a HPLC assay of 85-95% and a yield of 65-99%.
Example 9 4H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2-thiazin-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-, 1,1-dioxide 1 (X and R=hydrogen)
1H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): 8.90 (bt, 1H), 7.98 (d, 1H), 7.46 (d, 1H), 4.23 (d, 2H).
Example 10 4H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2-thiazin-4-one, 6-chloro 2,3-dihydro-, 1,1-dioxide 1 (X=chlorine and R=hydrogen)
1H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): 9.08 (bs, 1H), 7.56 (s, 1H), 4.26 (d, 2H).
Example 11 4H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2-thiazin-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-2-(3-methoxypropyl)-, 1,1-dioxide 5 (X=hydrogen)
1H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): 8.05 (d, 1H), 7.49 (m, 1H), 4.58 (s, 2H), 3.3-3.1 (m, 7H), 1.73 (m, 2H).
Example 12 4H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2-thiazin-4-one, 6-chloro 2,3-dihydro-2-(3-methoxypropyl)-, 1,1-dioxide 5 (X=chlorine)
1H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): 7.59 (s, 1H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 3.3-3.2 (m, 4H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 1.74 (m, 2H).
Example 13 2H-thieno[3,2-e]-1,2-thiazin-6-sulphonamide, 3,4-dihydro-2-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-oxo-, 1,1-dioxide 5 (X=Sulphonamide)
1H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): 8.20 (s, 2H), 7.77 (s, 1H), 4.54 (s, 2H), 3.4-3.1 (m, 7H), 1.78 (m, 2H).